INTRODUCTION

Nasik is an important city of Maharashtra, economically and socially the most advanced state in India. Geographical proximity to Mumbai (Economic capital of India) has influenced its growth in post independence years. Developments of past two decades have completely transformed this traditional pilgrimage centre into a vibrant modern metropolis and Nasik is poised to become a metropolis with global links. New Nasik has emerged out of the dreams, hard work and enterprising spirit of local and migrant people.

Development of multiple economic activities in and around Nasik has this common theme of people's initiative and actions, spirit of constant learning and innovating through experiences of regional, national and global sources and experimentation. The spirit of adventure can be traced to the mythology of Lord Rama who chose the riverbanks of Godavari, the present Nasik, as his home in exile. Nasik thus became a city of pilgrimage and acquired the status of Benaras of South India.

Global connections of Nasik have been traced back to second century BC. Archaeologists have established its links to Roman Empire through trade. Buddhist stone-cut caves dated 175 BC and Chamar caves of the Jain period still attract large number of visitors. Muslim, Maratha and British rulers governed this city in last 500 years. Each period left its cultural and architectural imprints on the city fabric. Additions of modern activities and functions to the city has not undermined the traditional role of Nasik as pilgrimage centre but old built form is rapidly decaying and is getting consumed in the commercialisation.

This paper studies the growth of Nasik and its surrounding region based on industrialisation. It also considers the city growth in relation to the process of urbanisation, changing trends and patterns of settlements of Indian subcontinent.

Globalisation based on new technological developments will have a great bearing on the future course of urban development and its significance for Indian people. Concepts like formation of Global village will have revolutionary impacts on the human society. I am tempted to name this as period of Globalayan, a period of transformation of world into a global village whereby cities like Nasik will have a greater role to play.


Nasik and Surrounding Village Settlements Before 1882

VILLAGES MERGED WITHIN CITY LIMITS


1. MAKHAMALABAD GAOTHAN

14. AMBAD KH.

2. MHARSUL

15. KAMATWADA

3. ADGAON

16. SATPUR

4. GANGAPUR

17. PATHARDI

5. ANANDVALLI

18. WADALE

6. NASIK

19. VADNER

6a. PANCHAVATI

20. DEOLALI

7. NANDUR DASTAK

21. VIHIT

8. MANUR

22. CHEHEDI

9. PANCHAK

23. DEGAON

10. BASAK

24. SAMANGAON

11. EKLEHRA

25. KOTAMGAON

12. PIMPALGAON BAHULA

26. DADHEGAON

13. CHUNOHALA

27. PIMPALGAON KHAM

 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF NASIK

Nasik Before 1882

Nasik is located on the nine peaks of Deccan plateau. River Godavari flows through the centre of the City. The left bank area, known as Panchavati, is believed to be the land chosen by Lord Rama for his stay in exile. There are a number of temples and a cave supposed to have been used by Sita, wife of Lord Rama. Tapovan, a small forest area for meditation is located nearby. Traditionally the families staying in this part of city are engaged in religious activities.

Muslim population settled on the right bank of Godavari, when Nasik came under Muslim rule in 13-16th century. An old Gadhi (Fort of smaller size) with walled enclosure was constructed by the Muslim Rulers. Prior to Muslim occupation of the city there were as many as 200 large and small temples on both the banks of river Godavari. These temples used to be busy with religious activities throughout the day all round the year. During Muslim rule, they lost their glory and were slowly transformed into ruins. Yet Nasik held on to its position as an important pilgrimage centre for Hindus.

Peshavas from Pune won control of Nasik in the 17th century. They took keen interest in the renovation and development of Nasik city. They invited various craftsmen to construct temples and buildings. They encouraged traders to settle and start business in Nasik. The city flourished during this period. Many old temples in ruin were renovated with large donations from the trading community and the rulers. New temple complexes were constructed in 17-18 century in Nasik and its surrounding villages such as Trimbakeswar, Chandvad, Sinnar and Anjaneri that are within 20 km radius. Large residential buildings called Wadas (houses with courtyards) including those for the Peshava were constructed. Most of the new development of this period took place on the Right Bank of the river.

After prolonged fights in the region, the British occupied Nasik towards the second decade of 19 century. In 1818, the Nasik district area completely came under British rule. In next few decades The British Rule was consolidated. Subsequently new administration based on British model was successfully implemented in the district.

Nasik was given the status of a town and municipal council was established in 1865. Even in this period Nasik continued to be a religious centre. Brahmin community of Nasik was very influential. The British administration on many occassions had to bow to the wishes of Brahmin community. Construction of Railway line joining Mumbai was the most significant development of the 19-century. But Brahmins opposed its entry into Nasik city on religious grounds. Finally the railway line was realigned to a distance of 10 km from city and the station was named as Nasik Road (1865)! However resistance to the construction of a bridge across River Godavari was successfully defused. Tram was another addition to the city, which became necessary due to the distance between city and Railway station. Highway connecting Mumbai to North India passing through Nasik was constructed replacing earlier Bullock cart track.

In 1882 Nasik was appointed with a local self-government by enactment of municipal law by the British rule. The author considers History of modern Nasik to start from this year.

Nasik after 1882

Last decade of 19th century and first fifty years of 20th century were turbulent. All countries of the world were affected by the events of this period such as world wars, economic upheavals etc. Urbanisation in India based on industrial production had started in the late British period. Port towns like Calcutta, Mumbai, Chennai (Madras) became first industrial towns. Population of these cities grew rapidly due to the multiple economic activities but the progress of urbanisation in this period was not steady. In the first half of this century, epidemics like plague (1911), Influenza (1918) and the first World War (1914-18) and great world economic depression of 1930's were responsible for this irregular process of urbanisation. Urban population declined in the face of these global events. On the other hand, rapid urbanisation took place in the second World War period in 1939-1946 due to the required increase in industrial production. Another spell of rapid growth in Indian urban population took place in 1947 due to the large number of refugees after partition of the country.

Till 1947 Nasik was a small and relatively insignificant town. Population of Nasik in the first five decades of this century multiplied more than four times (Refer graph on page 7). This growth in population was primarily due to administrative functions of the city as a district headquarter. Establishment of India security press in 1925 and currency note press in 1928 were only major additional functions requiring a workforce. Military cantonment areas at Deolali and artillery centre at Nasik Road, were established in war period (1918). All these additions were outside the then city limits of Nasik, located about 8-10 km away, near the railway station of Nasik Road. Introduction of electricity in 1929 did bring about certain changes in the city. Dadasaheb Phalke of Nasik, pioneer of Indian cinema produced the first Indian film in 1913. Cinema theatres became great entertainment centres of the district.

Main economic function continued to be religious tourism and related trade, the two traditional activities related to Nasik. Brass & copper utensils and gold & silver ornaments were produced in Nasik but the production was home-based. The agricultural production in the district was limited to a few traditional crops and grape, the fruit for which Nasik was famous. Despite the renowned quality and variety in types of grapes, the production was limited in volume and its contribution to economy was insignificant.

Expansion of Nasik

Population reached 52000 (1941) mainly due to migration of people to Nasik. Traditionally migrants always settled on the Right Bank of River Godavari. They occupied land tracks on the periphery of the development during the last Peshava period. Traditional Panchavati area of Nasik carried out its religious functions quite insulated from new developing areas.

Settlement pattern of this new area development was based on the British planning principles. Road connecting Nasik to Mumbai became the new focal point of city with its new imposing stone structures constructed in neo gothic style, set back from roads and providing tree lined avenues in the administrative area. The British residential quarters were large bungalows set in landscaped gardens, located away from office areas. Buildings for District Court, Collector offices, Police headquarters and large buildings housing war offices and town hall were part of the administrative complex. Indian professionals like lawyers, doctors, administrators and neo rich planned their residential area near this administrative complex. Smart residences in art deco style, which were popular in Europe, appeared in the city. British rule introduced formal education and many schools were constructed. Closely packed buildings, narrow streets and multiple dwellings dominated the traditional settlement. Bungalows with gardens, set back from the streets became popular in the new residential developments. Residents of new settlement were influenced by British education. They were conscious of Modern City development. This new class of people was active and influential in political and social movements of the period. They had close contacts with cities like Mumbai, Pune and the outside world. This area later became the centre of political movement and independence struggle. Direction of growth away from the old city towards Mumbai and Pune is symbolic. The growth of city in this direction continued even after independence.

With the establishment of the British rule came the diverse cultural and religious groups of people. The Parsees, The Christians, and Hindus from cities like Mumbai and Pune contributed to the growth. Major cultural addition was that of English language through the introduction of formal education. The Irani (Parsees) restaurants became attractive new meeting places. Bread and bakery products introduced by them became very famous. Missionaries constructed churches on the periphery of the city. A public Garden called Jackson Garden was introduced. Cultural diversity of migrant population made the city change its basic attitudes. It contributed by expanding the cultural experiences of people and making them aware of new ideas, philosophies, languages, cultures and religions, opening up new opportunities for interactions and change.

Idea of independent democratic India also was nurtured in this period and environment. Nasik played a major part during the Independence movement. It had its share of glorious fights against British Rulers. Violent events like assassinations as well as peaceful encounters of the period have proud place in the History of Nasik. During the Struggle for Independence, Nasik and Nasik Road became famous due to the central Jails where hundreds of freedom fighters and national leaders including Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi were held prisoners.


GROWTH AND DIVERSIFICATION OF NASIK AFTER 1947

Population

Population of the then Nasik recorded the highest ever growth rate between 1941-51. Growth rate of 85 % in this decade took the total population figure to nearly a 100,000. This growth was the result of partition of India. Population growth rate started rising steadily after 1961 and Nasik recorded more than the average growth rate for India in two decades, between 1971-91. In 1982 the city limit was expanded and Nasik acquired the status of Metropolitan City with a population of 432,000. Growth rate of 63 % for the decade 1971-81 continued in the decade 1981-91. In 1997 the population reached the figure of more than 900,000 and is expected to cross one million before the next century.


People migrating to Nasik are largely residents from rural areas of the district and other parts of Maharashtra. They come in search of higher education and better job opportunities. A number of migrants are industrial workers and employees from other towns who have migrated with their production units. Migration from other states is relatively less. In recent years the number of people choosing Nasik as a place to settle after retirement is growing. A few of the migrants are people who have returned from other countries after a lifetime career to settle in Nasik thus re-establishing old links with the country and their familes. All these people with their knowledge in diverse fields are contributing to the new emerging cityscape. With migration, the composition and culture is rapidly changing.
City Boundaries

The growth in population necessitated the expansion of city boundary from time to time to help provide and extend urban services to the people occupying the peripheral villages and make more land available for urban population.

         In 1881 the then Nasik town area was just 5 sq. miles (13 sq. km.)

         First expansion in 1931 took this area to 7.75 sq. miles (20 sq. km.)

         In 1951 the city boundary expanded to encompass area of 18 sq. miles (47 sq. km)

         Further expansion (1982) of city limits covered an area of 110 sq. miles (287.22 sq. km)

        
This increase in the area works out to 22 times in one hundred years. The population grew 30 times in same period.

 


Industrialization of Nasik City and District

Independent India had a grand industrial development agenda. Science, technology and industrial production was given a priority in the development strategy. Policy framework devised by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was the driving force. Before independence, India had very few industries using modern technology for producing goods. Colonial rule had restricted industrial growth. Most of the population (90%) residing in rural India was poor and the pressure on agriculture was unsustainable. Industrialisation on large scale based on modern technology, which had brought material wealth in western countries, was seen as a remedy. Barring a few ports like Calcutta, Madras and Mumbai, modern industrial culture was totally absent. Government planned large public sector industries for production of basic goods. Policy of decentralisation of Industrial investment was promoted for balanced urban growth. But private capital investments were limited to existing metropolises and larger towns as the infrastructure for industries was inadequate in other areas. Central and state Governments devised policies for creating new industrial growth centres. Results of all these policies are now seen in the case of cities like Nasik.

Some people of Nasik shared this dream and started working towards the industrialisation of Nasik. These people were mostly those who had participated in the freedom struggle. Initiative and efforts of such people resulted in the Government acceptance of the proposal for an industrial estate in Nasik. First industrial estate NICE (Nasik Industrial Co-operative Estate) was formed in the co-operative sector in 1962. In the same year, Maharashtra State government also responded by declaring MIDC (Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation) Industrial Estate at Satpur village, 7 km from Nasik. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited established unit for production of MIG fighters at Ozar, a village 20 km from Nasik. This production facility in public sector was established in collaboration with the then U.S.S.R in 1964. In 1967 SICOM (State Investment Corporation of Maharashtra) adapted Nasik as its growth centre. All these events brought Nasik on the industrial map of India.

Forming an industrial estate was one thing and attracting investments another. NICE had to undertake the arduous task of attracting entrepreneurs. Local residents, traders and professionals, having no experience in industrial production were convinced and pursued to put money in new ventures. In 1960 Satpur was a small village without even a post office, telephone or electricity. Constructing buildings, roads and other infrastructure proved a Herculean task for the pioneering entrepreneurs. Next on the agenda of NICE was an effort to attract large private sector investment preferably with international collaboration. NICE was rewarded in its efforts when MICO (German multinational) and ABB (Swedish multinational) established their production units. The industry that came to Nasik was mostly engineering, electrical and pharmaceutical.

Satpur Industrial Area became fully functional in 1970s and soon all the plots were taken up by small, medium and large enterprises. Thermal power plant at Eklahra near Nasik Road greatly contributed to the power demand of industries. The success of Satpur MIDC, created demand for additional Industrial plots. In 1980 MIDC declared second industrial estate at Ambad, a village located on Mumbai-Nasik road, 10 km from Nasik. All plots in this industrial area are occupied today. NICE has also developed special plots for Women's co-operative and a building with small workshops for women entrepreneurs. Special premises are also donated for the training and production facilities for mentally handicapped persons. Co-operation and support of industry to various local welfare institutes has given a boost to many social schemes.

Success of NICE and NIMA (Nasik Industrial Manufacturers Association) at Satpur and Ambad was repeated at Sinnar, a small town 22 km from Nasik. A co-operative industrial estate developed by local initiative in 1982 was followed by formation of MIDC Industrial area at Sinnar in 1988. This area is in the process of development. Additional Sinnar area is being developed as a Mega Industrial estate with state of the art facilities. Trans-national industrial companies are invited to locate their production centres here. Global, experienced development agencies are also invited to plan and execute the project. Residential township will be developed along with this. Sinnar was once famous for its Bidies (type of hand rolled tobacco stick). Today it is planning for the future high tech industries.

Nasik can boast of an industrial region producing goods from pins to Aeroplanes! Industrialisation has boosted the spirit of Nasik district. Each Tehsil (an administrative unit of district) is planned with a mini industrial estate, including the tehsils where the population is predominantly Adivasi (tribal and aboriginal). There are now 12 co-operative industrial areas besides the MIDC estates. The district is expected to create 100,000 industrial jobs in near future (Refer Table No. 3).

Agricultural Growth

Agriculture and related activities generally do not form a part of urban economy. It was not considered for growth in case of Nasik. But development and progress have many surprises. Nasik has been lucky to have this.

Traditionally Nasik had been famous in India for its grapes. Onion was another agricultural crop. Besides these two cash crops, agricultural production of Nasik was insignificant. Main problems faced by the farmers were lack of irrigation facilities and limited cultivable land. The land in Nasik region is mostly barren and rocky. Cultivation was limited to monsoon season. Though many pulses, oil seeds, grains like wheat, jawar, bajra and rice were cultivated, the yield was poor. Agricultural sector did not contribute much to the local economy. Cultivation of vegetables and fruits was limited. Dairy and poultry were also underdeveloped till the last few years due to absence of services to the farming community.

All this has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Investments, irrigation schemes, electricity, new technologies like drip irrigation, better seeds and other inputs are contributing to increase in production. Educated and trained farmers with a business attitude are seeking and creating facilities. Immense potential has been created for agro-industries through this sector. Grapes of all varieties for table consumption or for making resins, grape juice, grape wines are cultivated by farmers on a small scale as well as by large plantations developed through corporate joint ventures with French and Australian companies. Due to systematic promotion efforts and facility creations, farmers are capturing European grape markets. Cold storages, pre-cooling, packing and processing units are growing in number. Necessary information is being generated and visits to other potential markets in Middle East, south-east Asia and Europe are becoming common for farmers. Cultivation of onion, the traditional cash crop has been expanded for growing export markets. White onion powder popular in U.S. and Europe is from Nasik and neighbouring Jalgaon district known as North Maharashtra regions.

Strawberry is a new crop becoming popular due to potential export and growing demand in national market. Large-scale plantations have been undertaken by French Biotech Ltd. in Dindori Tehsil of Nasik. Orient Sericulture (Tata group) has 1000 hectares of mulberry plantation. Traditional Paithani (a kind of rich silk sari produced on handloom) production has been revived at Yeola and craftsmen are rewarded by great market response to the products. Traditional paithani design has been adapted by a designer for Aircraft!

Nasik was once called Gulshanabad (city of roses). Now Roses from Nasik are exported to middle east. Floriculture projects have emerged where the exotic varieties popular in European markets are grown. Nasik is taking advantage of growing local demand for flowers. There are many such farms, small and medium in size within the city limits of Nasik. Farms and Farmhouses within city limits and the surrounding areas make Nasik a unique city.

Interdependence, interaction, participation and mutual support given by residents, agricultural and industrial producers is an important factor in the evolution of urban rural relationship. Synergy of agricultural and industrial sector holds great promises of change in the future of Nasik but they can only be realised through the growth of service sector. This sector is growing at a much faster rate and its role in local and national economy is ever increasing in importance.

Service Sector

Business, Trade, Commerce and Financial Sector

Banking, finance, insurance, legal, taxation and accountancy services, engineering support, trading of raw material and finished goods, packing and forwarding, warehousing, transport services, security, maintenance and computer services are needed for the growth and development of industries. This sector has grown in Nasik in the last 30 years. Nationalised banks have 69 branches in Nasik city while the remaining district has 232 branches. Many other co-operative and private sector banks also operate in the district. 512 bank branches in the district offer various banking services which were totally absent at the time of independence.

Regional offices of major financial institutions like MSFC (Maharashtra State Finance Corporation), SICOM and major banks are located in Nasik. Two major banks have started specialised branches for hi-tech agro finance. HDFC (A major private sector housing finance corporation) and SHRICOM housing bank have their branches in Nasik. NAFED (National Agricultural Finance and Export Division) handles most of the agricultural export.

In order to facilitate and boost growing export from the region, container freight station has been started by central warehousing corporation and custom duty clearances have been arranged for in Nasik (earlier this used to be done at Mumbai)

Tourism

Tourism has been a traditional function of the city. Visitors come to city on auspicious days in large numbers, to have a dip in river Godavari. Godavari is known as a holy river of south India comparable to the Ganges. People assemble in great numbers at Nasik every 12 years. This fair is known as Kumbha Mela. The last Kumbha Mela was held in the year 1992 when about a million people visited Nasik

In normal years tourists visit to perform certain religious rites on banks of Godavari and at the numerous temples. The arrangements for their stay are made in the houses of the priests or with the people of common caste. Lodging places constructed with donations from rich people known as Dharmashalas provide comfortable and affordable accommodation.

Modern tourist hotels were introduced in the British period. Today hotel industry is flourishing in Nasik. Tourists come from distant parts of India. Facilities demanded and provided for are growing at great speed and variety. Tour operators are bringing tourists in great numbers. They are helped by growth in transport infrastructure.

Beautiful old temples of Shiva at Trimbakeshwar, Kala Ram at Nasik, and Devi (Goddess) temple in the hills of Saptashringi attract a large number of devotees. Modern temple complexes like Mukti Dham and church at Nasik road have become new attractions for tourists. Sai Baba temple at Shirdi in neighbouring district attracts people of all faiths. Industrial expansion and activities have created a great demand for business hotels. India's leading chain of Hotels, The Taj, has constructed a smart 70 room well appointed five star hotel having fully equipped modern business centre with conference rooms, recreational and health facilities and speciality restaurants in plush landscaped setting. Motels and Holiday resorts are cropping up around the peripheral areas serving a large number of travellers and holidaymakers.

Housing Construction

Growing population created demand for housing. CIDCO, (City Development Corporation) established by Government of Maharashta to develop the twin-city of Mumbai (New Bombay) started its work for New Nasik in 1979. Township planned by CIDCO has been located between two industrial estates of Satpur and Ambad. This township provides various types of houses and plots for private development. Total area of approx. 400 Ha. houses 30,000 families besides all other amenities.

Housing construction in private sector is booming and has become a large business. All types of constructions, such as single family houses, apartment buildings and small colonies are mushrooming in the city. Old city residential areas with their typical 'Wada' structures are on the way to extinction. Land prices have increased steadily. All old residential areas are becoming increasingly congested and old street pattern and topography of the city poses challenges. All the same, slums as well as providing affordable housing in sufficient numbers is a problem.

Nasik is now expanding in all directions along the main arterial roads. The housing areas and commercial establishments, shopping, and services like schools, hospitals etc. are in the same zone. Business activities in the city mostly consist of small establishments employing not more than 10 persons. The vast service sector employment is created through such establishments. There are many advantages. Most people go home for lunch. Two wheelers are very popular and provide cheap transport. Leisurely pace of the city is in contrast to the lifestyle of Mumbai and has attracted many from such cities.

 

 

 

Infrastructure

Nasik has been blessed with a number of small rivers besides river Godavari. A number of dams constructed in the last 50 years have improved the availability of water. But the delivery system of this vital resource needs much improvement. Electricity is supplied by the State grid and is presently sufficient. But demand is growing faster than the supply. Many industrial establishments are now allowed to generate their own power through captive plants, which means more power is available to the city.

Nasik could develop to such size and at such speed due to the advantage of its location vis--vis Mumbai. The distance is 185 km. The present capacity of road and rail links is grossly inadequate. Traffic has grown phenomenally in last few years. More than 60 % of trucks and containers travelling on the road have their destination beyond Nasik but have to pass through the city. Alternative road plans have not yet materialised. Demand for more trains to Mumbai is also pending. Hence the load on the road transport is great.

Air link to Mumbai is a problem due to lack of civil airport. Air force and Mig Factory airports are not presently permitted to be used for civilian purposes. Plan for an airport may be realised in future if finance is made available.

Telecommunication link is the most vital infrastructure that will decide the growth of software industry in Nasik. Modern telephone exchanges are providing new telephone connections. Direct satellite link for data communication is essential. Telecom department of the Government of India is planning for efficient and reliable digital connectivity in the near future. Nasik is hoping to take advantage of this and expecting to attract Information Technology firms.

Development of infrastructure is going to be the most important factor for the growth and development of Nasik. Large capital investment required in this sector is a major problem. Most of these services are provided by the public sector agencies. Recently efforts are being made to seek private sector participation in improving these services.


Social Sector

The rapid growth of the city has given boost to the social services like education, health and medicine, social welfare, sports, entertainment, arts etc.

Higher level education in various streams such as engineering, computers, management, commerce, medicine, pharmacy, architecture, agriculture etc. is available in Nasik through various colleges and institutes. Y. B. Chavan open University of Maharashtra is located in Nasik. Recently the Government has announced setting up of Medical University of Maharashtra which will be located in Nasik. Most of these facilities have been added only in last two decades. Number of doctors, hospitals, health centres is steadily growing and large number of people from the district depend on the city for variety of services.


SALIENT AND INTERESTING FACTS AND FEATURES ABOUT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NASIK AFTER 1947

         Population growth rate of Nasik has been constantly more than that of Urban India, Maharashtra and nearest metro city of Mumbai between 1971-1991. Growth rate of Nasik (57 % and 67 %) is highest among top 4 cities of Maharashtra. Mumbai (38 % and 20 %), Pune (48 % and 47 %), Nagpur (40 % and 27 %), between 1971-81 and 1981-91 respectively.

         Nasik has grown from a population of 21490 in 1901 to 722139 in 1991. The growth rate between 1901-1991 works out to 3260 % which is higher than most of the top 34 cities! It took Mumbai 157 years to grow from a base population of 70000 in 1744 to a million in 1901. Nasik will have achieved this within a short period of 55 years starting from 1945 in year 2000.

         Malegaon city of Nasik district was famous for its handlooms and power looms. It was largest industrial town of the district. In 1971 Malegaon, was having more population (191847) than Nasik (176090). But in 1991 Nasik population (725000) more than doubled that of Malegaon (342595).

         Total population of Nasik Tehsil in 1991 was 826303 and urban population was 733224. This means that 88 % population of the Tehsil is urban.

         Nasik was seventh largest city in 1947 in Maharashtra after Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Sholapur Ahmadnagar and Amaravati, all having industrial activities. Now it is fourth. In 1981 Nasik was 47th largest town in India. In 1991 Nasik became 34th largest town in India

         Nasik is an industrial city but has got 13 % working population in primary i.e. agricultural sector that is more than any large city of Maharashtra. Nasik has got second highest working population in service sector (27 %) next to Aurangabad (31 %). Hence Nasik is listed in" Industrial cum service" category as per the definition of functional categories of Census of 1991 (Refer Table No. 6).

         Growth of Nasik has given boost to the growth of other towns in the district which are closer to Nasik like Sinnar on Nasik Pune road, Igatpuri and Ghoti on Nasik Mumbai road and Ozar on Nasik Agra road. All are within the distance of 40 km. Urban growth of Nasik district is getting concentrated in the southern part of the district and almost 62 % urban population is concentrated in 4 town of Nasik, Igatpuri, Sinnar and Ozar, all the tehsils contiguous to Nasik Tehsil.

         Industrial activities of Nasik city and district have grown dramatically. In 1971 there were 394 industries in the district with total employment of 19672. Most of the employment in private sector was in home based production. About 7000 persons were engaged in Bidi making (Rolling of Tobacco in leaves). In 1997 there are 7896 small-scale industries and 174 large and medium industries providing total employment to about 66000 workers. Small-scale industries provide employment to about 32500 persons. Large no of industries are of engineering units, followed by electrical, electronics, Plastic moulding and agro-based industries. The Industrial sector is not dominated and dependent on one or two large-scale plants. The Industrial sector is much more diversified and independent. Public sector employment in establishments like Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (7800), Currency note press (5000), India security press (6000) is significant. The role of industry in greening of the area has to be acknowledged. Once barren and dry landscape of the areas surrounding the city is provided with green cover by conscious efforts of the industrial community.

         Development plan of Nasik City has 2100 ha. area allotted for Industrial use which is 14.09 % of developed area and just 7.31 % of gross town area. While 44.14 % of gross town area is in no Development Zone. This is the zone in which agricultural farms are located. The Industries are located in exclusively planned areas and their growth is regulated through Development control regulations. The Industrial estates are planned with environmental concern and common effluent treatment plants are planned for them ( Refer Table No. 2).

         There are strong links between growth and Human development. Growth and Diversification of economic activities of Nasik city has demanded growth of skilled and trained manpower. The nature of industries and service sector in Nasik is primarily based on such human skills. The demand today is largely met by the facilities created in last two decades. Literacy rates, women's participation in education and work force, are indicators.

         At the beginning of twentieth century this orthodox Hindu pilgrimage centre was rocked by the conversion of cast Hindus to Christianity. It was also a great event when The Famous Kala Ram Temple of Nasik was forcibly entered by the then untouchables under the leadership of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (1922). Today the religious image and role of religion in Nasik is limited though important. Secular image of Nasik is the result as well as the cause of successful transformation of Nasik.

         Historically Nasik was never a capital city of any kingdom, was never a rich business town, neither a rich agricultural bazar town or had industrial establishments like sugar factories, textile. It does not have powerful political lobby. It is a people's town and was once known as a town for common people 'Janasthan'. Today residents of Nasik proudly remember this name

SOME REFLECTIONS ON NASIK CITYSCAPE

         In 1982 physical boundaries of Nasik encompassed 22 time more area than that in the year 1881. The city space today is dominated by the new city developments. The quality of new cityscape definitely needs the touch of creative artistic hands. Physical plans of Nasik City were developed through the government town planning department and other planning authorities like MIDC and CIDCO. No leading Architect or planner has been involved in its inception. One can witness the functional quality of the land use but there is total absence of planners aesthetic vision of a city. Today Nasik is economically rich but lacks the aesthetic quality found in its development of Maratha rule or later British rule.

         Old parts of Nasik including the administrative and residential areas developed during British period and some of the developed areas witness the typical overcrowding of Indian cities. Narrow streets of old residential areas are far too inadequate for the commercial use they are converted to and the vehicular traffic is choking them. Small vendors, hand carts, animals, cycles, scooters and pedestrians are engaged in constant battles over space. Public transport systems are grossly neglected and are inadequate. Most of the people prefer scooters and motor cycles for obvious reasons even though the safety is at stakes. But it provides the cheapest mode of transport. It also helps the flexible work schedules of working persons and the lifestyles of people.

         The development of new commercial buildings, restaurants, hotels, shopping centres try to go beyond stark aesthetics to attract attention but they lack authenticity and aesthetic values. Few efforts of architects can be termed partially successful and one of them is the new building of the Nasik Municipal Corporation. It is an apt symbol of the success and aspirations of transformed Nasik.

         Nasik has large service sector employment and it is headquarter of the North Maharashtra region comprising of four districts. It has presence of large number of banks, financial and insurance companies, marketing offices of many organisations, private sector organisations besides government and administrative offices. But it has no central business district as is common to many towns and the offices are spread throughout the city, merging with residential and industrial spaces or located along the main transport corridors.

Life style of people is also not dominated by the clock. Flexible working hours, part time work schedules, Home based work places and home based income generation activities are quite common. Most of the people do not travel long distances to work ( Nasik area is roughly 20 x 14 km) and tensions of large metropolises are quite absent.

         Slum population and areas are not absent in the city but the population and areas are limited.

         That Nasik has many attributes of modern urban town with many advantages and choices of life styles is a common perception. That is the reason a large number of people are attracted to Nasik in last few years. Nasik can be termed as a successful example of growth with development and diversification including agricultural activities integrated in the city. It is an example that vindicates the policies adapted by India for industrialisation and decentralisation with public and private sector participation.

 


URBANISATION TRENDS : NASIK, MAHARASHTRA AND INDIA

        

Growth and development of Nasik is significant for understanding the process and trends of urban growth in India. Nasik has grown much faster than in the last two decades when urban growth rate in Maharashtra and India are declining. That decline in growth rate of Mumbai in this period is significantly low can be seen from the graph.

         Urban centres in India are growing in numbers. There are about 3700 urban centres of which 555 are growing faster than the national average urban growth rate. Of these 30 are in Maharashtra. Pune is the only city in Maharashtra beside New Delhi and Bangalore with population more than 1 million growing faster than the average.

         Most of the fast growing urban centres are the ones which had less than 500000 population in 1981. Nasik falls in this catagory.

From the facts it can be inferred that the rapid growth of urbanisation and its concentration in large metros after Independence is arrested and urbanisation is more decentralised than ever before. Reasons for this reversal have great bearing on the future course of urbanisation in India.

         Position of Maharashtra as the most Industrialised and urbanised state of India is now challenged and many states are competing for larger share of both. States like Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh through their systematic efforts are developing rapidly.

         Within Maharashtra there has emerged great competition among cities for attracting Industrial investment. Governments also offer large incentives to Industries for location in rural areas. Industries are also helped by new communication technologies, growing transport facilities, and other infrastructure development like power and water.

         It is unlikely that growth of Nasik will continue at the same rate as it nears the figure of one million population. The reason is that many other growth centres are offering advantages of infrastructures, location near working population, near raw material and location of consumption. Recent completion of Konkan railway along the coast of Maharashtra is opening up many new areas for development and its impact will be much greater for the future course of development in Maharashtra than any other single factor.

         This process of rapid development of few urban centres in early periods of industrialisation based on modern manufacturing processes and decentralisation and dispersal of growth in later period is not a unique phenomenon in India but is an ubiquitous process observed in most developed countries. What is significant in India is that the process of centralisation and decentralisation is compressed in a shorter period.


FUTURE OF URBANISATION IN GLOBALIZATION ERA

GLOBALISATION in simple terms is explained as creation of Global village. This concept is the product of new technological revolution in fields of Electronics, computers and speedy communication through satellite technology. All these are supporting the dispersal of all the human activities, most important being the economic, social and political activities. They are changing the methods of production of goods, their movements across the locations within the countries and the world. Concentration of goods production in urban centres mostly near the port towns, separation of rural agricultural production and industrial production of cities, irrational and wasteful movement of raw materials, finished goods, agricultural products at great environmental costs were products of three centuries of Industrial revolution. But systemic nature of all the human interactions are becoming clear with the result that all countries of the world are becoming interdependent in this era of globalization. Globalisation will have many new opportunities for countries like India.

All sectors of economy, especially Agriculture can benefit from new technologies, knowledge intensive management, processing, preservation, marketing and environmentally friendly techniques, better infrastructure accessibility, and services like finance, crop insurance. Increasing productivity, multiple crops, and agriculture based local industrial facilities will affect the employment potential of rural areas. In countries like India large population can continue to be supported on agriculture with better economic returns. The need for migration of rural poor to urban areas will be greatly reduced.

Industrial production will be geographically dispersed across the country and the old equation of Industry and growth will change. Trend of diminishing employment in industrial sector of large metropolises has already started which will be further strengthened. Industrial investment was seen as the vehicle of development in past. Today investment in infrastructure is directing the growth. The direction is away from large metro centres.

Large cities will not vanish immediately but their economic position will be challenged. Service sector employment as witnessed in developed countries will be dominant sector of large metropolises in India. Service sector will also grow faster in small and medium towns and pressure on metropolises will be greatly relieved.

Concept of a city as such will still have large attraction but the scale and form will undergo dramatic change. Environmentally this trend is a positive trend and will be beneficial in the final analysis.

CONCLUSION

Study of growth, diversification and transformation of Nasik reveals a trend that challenges common notions of the urbanisation process in India. The developments of last two decades show a totally different trend from that observed in three decades before. The focus of urban development in India needs to be shifted from experiences of large metropolises of Calcutta, Mumbai and Chennai that had emerged and flourished during the period when trade, commerce and early industrialisation directed the process of urbanisation. Dispersal and diversification of urban growth observed in last two decades vindicate the policy adapted by India after independence for a more balanced economic and physical growth. That this trend is likely to be strengthened in near future and will be assisted by new technologies can be seen from the case study of Nasik. Globalisation is a process that has potential to support and speed up this trend of "counter Urbanisation" as suggested by Peter Hall. Arguments, projections and models based on the urbanisation trends observed in the early industrialisation period will prove grossly inadequate, redundant and futile like the forecasts based on future population growth in India made 5,10,15 years ago. How these projections made by United Nations Population Division for Calcutta and Mumbai have proved totally wrong. (Table no. 7)

It is essential to analyse the failures of these projections and reasons behind them.

Aim of all developmental issues including that of urbanisation is to provide basic services to all, to reduce poverty and control the degradation of the life and the environment. Transformation of Nasik in last fifty years has been successful in this direction. It has many positive and healthy aspects about it which need to be strengthened further. Globalisation provides one such opportunity.


Table No. 1 : SECTORWISE WORKING POPULATION OF NASIK CITY

IN YEAR 1981 & 1991

Sr.no

Occupation

YEAR 1981

YEAR 1991

PERCENT 1981

PERCENT 1991

1.      

Cultivators

9872

13043

7.68

5.77

2.      

Agri. labourer

9764

11840

7.61

5.23

3.      

Primary sector

19656

24883

15.39

11.00

4.      

Household industry mfg.,processing repairs,services

3963

65804

3.08

29.12

5.      

Tertiary sector

104875

135286

81.63

59.98

6.      

Total workers

128494

225973

29.74

31.15

7.      

Total non workers

303554

499368

70.26

68.84

 

TOTAL

432044

725341

100

100

 

Table No. 2 : LAND USE DISTRIBUTION IN NASIK CITY

LAND USE

AREA IN HA.

% OF DEVELOPED AREA

% OF TOTAL AREA

Residential

7500

50.34

26.11

Commercial

363.68

2.44

1.27

Industrial

2100

14.09

7.31

Public/ semi public

728.10

4.84

2.53

Transport and communication

2265.31

15.20

7.89

Garden /recreation

428.42

2.88

1.49

Public utilities

172.46

1.16

0.60

CIDCO

398

2.67

1.39

Military

943.7

6.33

3.29

Water bodies

1067.18

 

3.71

No development zone

12755

 

44.41

Total

28721.85

 

100

 


Table No. 3 : M.I.D.C and other Industrial areas in Nasik district

Sr. no.

Name and location

Area in Ha.

Establishment year

1.       

Satpur M.I.D.C, Nasik

636.98

1962

2.       

NICE ( Nasik Co-Op Ind.Estate)

135

1962

3.       

Ambad, Nasik

519.55

1880

4.       

Malegaon co-op. Ind. area, Sinnar

24

1982

5.       

Sinnar M.I.D.C.

520

1988

6.       

5 Star Ind. Estate, Sinnar

7047.01

1992

7.       

Mini M.I.D.C., Peth

5.46

1992

8.       

Mini M.I.D.C., Dindori

32.22

1992

9.       

Mini M.I.D.C., Vindchur

18.91

1992

10.   

Co-Op. Ind. At Yeola

7.88

Info. unavailable

11.   

Co-Op. Ind. At Igatpuri

17.5

Info. unavailable

12.   

Co-Op. Ind. At Chandwad

55

Info. unavailable

13.   

Kalwan

35

Info. unavailable

14.   

Manmad

357

Info. unavailable

15.   

Satana

82

Info. unavailable

16.   

Malegaon

190

Info. unavailable

17.   

Sinnar co-op.Ind.area

374

Info. unavailable

18.   

Pimpalgaon

37.2

1992


 

Table No. 5 : GROWTH TRENDS OF 5 DECADES AFTER INDEPENDENCE FOR ALL INDIA, MAHARASHTRA STATE,

MUMBAI AND NASIK

Census year

All India

Variation %

Maharashtra

Variation %

Mumbai

Variation %

Nasik

Variation %

1951

62444000

41.43

9201000

 

2967000

 

148573

 

1961

78937000

26.43

11163000

17.57

4152000

39.93

200814

35.16

1971

109114000

38.21

15711000

40.74

5971000

43.81

274482

36.68

1981

159727000

46.38

21994000

39.99

8243000

38.05

432044

57.40

1991

218000000

36.48

30540000

38.85

9926000

20.41

725341

67.65


Table No. 6 : DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS AS PER CATEGORIES IN SELECTED CITIES OF MAHARASHTRA

City

Population

agriculture %

Industrial %

Trade and commerce %

Transport communication

services %

Functional classification

Mumbai region

12596243

1

42

24

11

22

Industrial

Pune Region

2493987

3

43

18

8

27

Industrial

Nagpur

1664006

4

33

23

13

27

Industrial

Nasik

725341

13

36

16

7

27

Ind. cum services

Solapur

620846

3

52

18

7

20

Industrial

Aurangabad

592709

8

35

18

8

31

Ind. cum services

Jalgaon

241293

15

27

22

9

27

Ind.cum services

Ozar

47538

25

46

7

3

19

Industrial


Table No. 7 : Projections v/s. Actual Growth of population in Metro cities of India

Metro city

Population (million)

1970

1980

2000

Projection

Actual

Projection

Actual

Projection

Likely

Calcutta

7.1

7.03

9.5

9.19

16.6

13.2

Mumbai

5.9

5.97

8.5

8.24

16.0

11.91

Delhi

3.6

3.64

5.9

5.79

13.3

12.4

Madras

3.1

3.17

4.4

4.28

8.2

6.83

Source: United Nation world population trends and Policies 1983

(Note: Projection for year 2000 is worked out on the basis of growth rate of respective cities in the years between 1981-1991)




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